- of, or relating to the protozoa
Protozoa (in Greek protohi = first and zoa = animals) are unicellular eukaryotes, (singular protozoan). While there is no exact definition of the term, most scientists use protozoan to refer to a unicellular heterotrophic protist. The name 'protozoa' is used for the more animal-like single celled organisms like amoebas and ciliates. The term 'algae' is used for the more plant-like micro organisms. However, the distinction between the two is often vague. Dinobryon (top image) has chloroplasts for photosynthesis but it can also feed on organic matter. It is even able to swim. Such an organism can neither be animal nor plant. Nowadays, all these unicellular organisms that are neither animals, plants, bacteria or fungi are called 'protists‘.
CharacteristicsProtozoa are around 10–50 μm, but can grow up to 1 mm and can easily be seen under a microscope. Protozoa exist throughout aqueous environments and soil. Protozoa occupy a range of trophic levels. As predators, they prey upon unicellular or filamentous algae, bacteria, and microfungi. Protozoa play a role both as herbivores and as consumers in the decomposer link of the food chain. Protozoa also play a vital role in controlling bacteria populations and biomass. As components of the micro- and meiofauna, protozoa are an important food source for microinvertebrates. Thus, the ecological role of protozoa in the transfer of bacterial and algal production to successive trophic levels is important. Protozoa such as the malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), trypanosomes and leishmania are also important as parasites and symbionts of multicellular animals.
Most protozoa exist in 5 stages of life which are in the form of trophozoites and cysts. As cysts, protozoa can survive harsh conditions, such as exposure to extreme temperatures and harmful chemicals, or long periods without access to nutrients, water, or oxygen for a period of time. Being a cyst enables parasitic species to survive outside of the host, and allows their transmission from one host to another. When protozoa are in the form of trophozoites (Greek, tropho=to nourish), they actively feed and grow. The process by which the protozoa takes its cyst form is called encystation, while the process of transforming back into trophozoite is called excystation.
Protozoa can reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission. Some protozoa reproduce sexually, some asexually, and some both (eg. Coccidia). An individual protozoan is hermaphroditic.
Another name for protozoa is Acrita (R. Owen, 1861). It can also be considered ''Eukaryotic Cell Functionase
ClassificationProtozoa were commonly grouped in the kingdom of Protista together with the plant-like algae and fungus-like water molds and slime molds. In the 21st-century systematics, protozoans, along with ciliates, mastigophorans, and apicomplexans, are arranged as animal-like protists. However, protozoans are neither Animalia nor Metazoa (with the possible exception of the enigmatic, moldy Myxozoa).
Sub-groupsProtozoa have traditionally been divided on the basis of their means of locomotion, although this is no longer believed to represent genuine relationships:
protozoic in Arabic: أوليات
protozoic in Catalan: Protozou
protozoic in Czech: Prvoci
protozoic in Danish: Protozo
protozoic in German: Protozoen
protozoic in Modern Greek (1453-): Πρωτόζωο
protozoic in Esperanto: Protozooj
protozoic in Spanish: Protozoo
protozoic in Persian: تکیاختگان
protozoic in Finnish: Alkueläimet
protozoic in Indonesian: Protozoa
protozoic in Italian: Protozoa
protozoic in Japanese: 原生動物
protozoic in Latin: Protozoa
protozoic in Hungarian: Protozoa
protozoic in Macedonian: Праживотни
protozoic in Malay (macrolanguage): Protozoa
protozoic in Dutch: Protozoa
protozoic in Polish: Protisty zwierzęce
protozoic in Portuguese: Protozoário
protozoic in Romanian: Protozoar
protozoic in Simple English: Protozoa
protozoic in Slovenian: Praživali
protozoic in Serbian: Протозоа
protozoic in Swedish: Urdjur
protozoic in Thai: โพรโทซัว
protozoic in Vietnamese: Động vật nguyên sinh
protozoic in Walloon: Protozowaire
protozoic in Chinese: 原生动物门